Words to Know
Also called baclofen/amitriptyline/ketamine gel. A substance being studied in the treatment of peripheral neuropathy (pain, numbness, tingling, burning, or weakness in the hands or feet) caused by chemotherapy. It contains three medicines, baclofen, amitriptyline, and ketamine, which relax muscles by blocking nerve receptors. The gel is applied to the skin of affected areas. It is a type of analgesic.
balloon catheter radiation
Also called MammoSite. A system used to deliver internal radiation therapy to the site of the breast cancer after surgery to remove the tumor. Balloon catheter radiation targets only the part of the breast where the cancer was found. After a lumpectomy, a small balloon on the end of a catheter (a thin tube) is inserted into the empty space left by the surgery. The balloon is then filled with liquid and left in place. Using the catheter, radioactive seeds are put into the balloon twice a day for 5 days and removed each time. Once treatment has ended, the catheter and balloon are removed. Balloon catheter radiation is a type of intracavitary brachytherapy and partial breast irradiation therapy (PBRT).
An initial measurement taken at an early point in time to represent a beginning condition. It is used as a point of comparison to look for changes over time. For example, the size of a tumor will be measured before treatment (baseline) and then afterward to see if the treatment had an effect.
A technique used to help people change the way they react to certain triggers in the environment that cause a negative reaction. In breast cancer treatment, behavior modification may be used to help women with breast cancer who have become nauseous during previous cancer treatments cope with nausea they feel when they enter the therapy room to begin a new round of treatment.
The removal of cells or tissues for examination by a pathologist. The pathologist may study the tissue under a microscope or perform other tests on the cells or tissue. There are many different types of biopsy procedures. The most common types include: (1) incisional biopsy, in which only a sample of tissue is removed; (2) excisional biopsy, in which an entire lump or suspicious area is removed; and (3) needle biopsy, in which a sample of tissue or fluid is removed with a needle. When a wide needle is used, the procedure is called a core biopsy. When a thin needle is used, the procedure is called a fine-needle aspiration biopsy.
Treatment to boost or restore the ability of the immune system to fight cancer, infections and other diseases. Also used to lessen certain side effects that may be caused by some cancer treatments. Monoclonal antibodies, growth factors and vaccines are used in biotherapy and may have a direct antitumor effect.
The necrosis (death) of bone tissue caused by treatment with a bisphosphonate (a medicine or substance used to treat osteoporosis, bone pain caused by some types of cancer, and high blood calcium). It commonly occurs in the jaw bones. There may be pain, swelling and infection in the areas of necrosis.