Words to Know


The formation of a break on the skin or on the surface of an organ. An ulcer forms when the surface cells die and are cast off. Ulcers may be associated with breast cancer and other diseases.


A break on the skin, in the lining of an organ, or on the surface of a tissue. An ulcer forms when the surface cells become inflamed, die, and are shed. Ulcers may be linked to breast cancer and other diseases.

ultrasound-guided biopsy

A biopsy procedure that uses an ultrasound imaging device to find an abnormal area of tissue and guide its removal for examination under a microscope.


A procedure in which high-energy sound waves are bounced off internal tissues or organs and make echoes. The echo patterns are shown on the screen of an ultrasound machine, forming a picture of body tissues called a sonogram.

ultraviolet radiation therapy

A form of radiation used in the treatment of breast cancer.

uncontrolled study

A clinical study that lacks a comparison (i.e., a control) group.


A term used to describe cells or tissues that do not have specialized ('mature') structures or functions. Undifferentiated cancer cells often grow and spread quickly.

unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy

Surgery to remove the ovary and fallopian tube on one side of the body.


Having to do with one side of the body.


Unable to be removed with surgery.


Describes an organ, tissue, or cancer that has not been either partly or completely removed by surgery.


In breast cancer, changing the stage used to describe an individual's cancer from a lower stage (less extensive) to a higher stage (more extensive). Upstaging is based on the results of additional staging tests. It is important to know the stage of the disease in order to plan the best treatment.


Also called hives. Itchy, raised red areas on the skin. Urticaria are caused by an allergic reaction to certain foods, medicines, infections, or it can be caused by emotional stress. Allergic reactions may require immediate medical attention, particularly if the presence of hives is associated with difficulty breathing.