Words to Know
Ductal carcinoma in situ, also called intraductal carcinoma. A noninvasive condition in which abnormal cells are found in the lining of a breast duct. The abnormal cells have not spread outside the duct to other tissues in the breast. In some cases, DCIS may become invasive cancer and spread to other tissues, although it is not known at this time how to predict which lesions will become invasive.
A condition caused by the loss of too much water from the body. Severe diarrhea or vomiting can cause dehydration. Some breast cancer treatments can cause dehydration. Symptoms of dehydration include dizziness, headache, decreased urine output, dry mouth, tiredness and listlessness or confusion. Severe dehydration requires immediate medical attention: Symptoms of severe dehydration may include passing out and urinating very little or not at all for 12 or more hours.
Also called AMG 162, Prolia and Xgeva. Denosumab is a medicine used to prevent or treat certain bone problems. In women affected with breast cancer, it may help prevent bone loss linked to use of aromatase inhibitors, a family of medicines used to treat postmenopausal women with estrogen-receptor positive disease. Under the brand name Xgeva, denosumab is used to prevent broken bones and other bone problems caused by solid tumors that have metastasized (spread) to bone. Denosumab binds to a protein called RANKL, and keeps RANKL from binding to another protein called RANK, on the surface of certain bone cells. This may help keep bone from breaking down. Denosumab is a type of monoclonal antibody.
A mental condition marked by ongoing feelings of sadness, despair, loss of energy and difficulty dealing with normal daily life. Other symptoms include feelings of worthlessness and hopelessness, loss of pleasure in activities, changes in eating or sleeping habits and thoughts of death or suicide. Depression can affect anyone and can be successfully treated.
Also called nutritional counseling. A process by which a health professional with special training in nutrition helps with healthy food choices and forming healthy eating habits. In breast cancer treatment, the goal of dietary counseling is to help individuals stay healthy during and after treatment and to stay strong enough to fight infections and help prevent the recurrence of disease.
In breast cancer, refers to how mature (developed) the cancer cells are in a tumor. Differentiated tumor cells resemble normal cells and tend to grow and spread at a slower rate than undifferentiated or poorly differentiated tumor cells, which lack the structure and function of normal cells and grow uncontrollably.
An antihistamine medicine sold over the counter under the brand name Benadryl. It is used to treat allergies, and is commonly present in over the counter sleep aids. Diphenhydramine may reduce the effects of tamoxifen, a medicine prescribed to reduce the likelihood of breast cancer recurrence. Talk with your doctor for more information.
Fluid that comes out of the body, sometimes from one or both nipples of the breast. Discharge can be normal or a sign of disease in women, but is a reason to seek medical attention. In men, discharge from the nipples requires medical attention. A second meaning for 'discharge' is the release of an individual from care at a hospital or health care facility.
disease-specific survival rate
The percent of people in a study or treatment group who have not died from a specific disease in a defined period of time. The time period usually begins at the time of diagnosis or at the start of treatment and ends at the time of death. Individuals who died from causes other than the disease being studied are not counted in this measurement.
Also called Taxotere. A medicine used together with other agents to treat certain types of breast cancer, stomach cancer, prostate cancer and certain types of head and neck cancer. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Docetaxel is a type of mitotic inhibitor.
A medicine that is used to treat many types of cancer. Doxorubicin comes from the bacterium Streptomyces peucetius. It damages DNA and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of anthracycline antitumor antibiotic. Also called Adriamycin PFS, Adriamycin RDF, doxorubicin hydrochloride, hydroxydaunorubicin and Rubex.
ductal carcinoma in situ
A noninvasive condition in which abnormal cells are found in the lining of a breast duct. The abnormal cells have not spread outside the duct to other tissues in the breast. In some cases, ductal carcinoma in situ may become invasive cancer and spread to other tissues, although it is not known at this time how to predict which lesions will become invasive. Also called DCIS and intraductal carcinoma.
A method used to collect cells from milk ducts in the breast. A hair-size catheter (tube) is inserted into the nipple, and a small amount of salt water is released into the duct. The water picks up breast cells, and is removed. The cells are checked under a microscope. Ductal lavage may be used in addition to clinical breast examination and mammography to detect breast cancer.
A drug used to treat depression and peripheral neuropathy (pain, numbness, tingling, burning or weakness in the hands or feet) that can occur with diabetes. It is also being studied in the treatment of peripheral neuropathy caused by certain anticancer drugs. Duloxetine increases the amount of certain chemicals in the brain that help relieve depression and pain. It is a type of serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. Also called Cymbalta and duloxetine hydrochloride.
durable power of attorney
Also called DPA. A type of power of attorney. A power of attorney is a legal document that gives one person (such as a relative, lawyer or friend) the authority to make legal, medical or financial decisions for another person. It may go into effect right away, or when that person is no longer able to make decisions for himself or herself. A durable power of attorney remains in effect until the person who grants it dies or cancels it. It does not need to be renewed over time.