Words to Know
A procedure to detect areas of the body where cells are dividing rapidly. It is used to locate cancer cells or areas of inflammation. A very small amount of radioactive gallium is injected into a vein and travels through the bloodstream. The gallium is taken up by rapidly dividing cells in the bones, tissues and organs and is detected by a scanner.
Gamma Knife therapy
A treatment using gamma rays, a type of high-energy radiation that can be tightly focused on small tumors or other lesions, so very little normal tissue receives radiation. The gamma rays are aimed at the tumor from many different angles at once, and deliver a large dose of radiation exactly to the tumor in one treatment session. This procedure is a type of stereotactic radiosurgery. Gamma Knife therapy is not a knife and is not surgery. Gamma Knife is a registered trademark of Elekta Instruments, Inc.
Also called polyvinylpyrrolidone-sodium hyaluronate gel. A gel used to lessen pain from mouth sores caused by chemotherapy or radiation therapy, oral surgery, braces or disease. It forms a thin layer over the surface of the mouth and throat to prevent irritation while eating, drinking and talking.
generalized anxiety disorder
Also called GAD. A condition marked by excessive worry and feelings of fear, dread and uneasiness that last six months or longer. Other symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder include being restless, being tired or irritable, muscle tension, not being able to concentrate or sleep well, shortness of breath, fast heartbeat, sweating and dizziness.
genome-wide association study
A study that compares the complete DNA of people with a disease or condition to the DNA of people without the disease or condition. These studies find the genes involved in a disease and may help prevent, diagnose and treat the disease. Also called GWAS, WGA study and whole genome association study.
Information about all the genes in an organism, including variations, gene expression and the way those genes interact with each other and with the environment. A genomic profile may be used to discover why some people get certain diseases while other people do not, or why people respond differently to the same medicine.
Good Clinical Practice
Also called GCP. An international set of guidelines that helps make sure that the results of a clinical trial are reliable and that the participants are protected. Good Clinical Practice covers the way a clinical trial is designed, conducted, performed, monitored, audited, recorded, analyzed and reported.
A system for classifying cancer cells in terms of how abnormal they appear when examined under a microscope. The objective of a grading system is to provide information about the probable growth rate of the tumor and its tendency to spread. The systems used to grade tumors vary with each type of cancer. Grading plays a role in treatment decisions.